Total Physical Response April 17, 2010Posted by gilangkanigara in Bahasa Inggris.
Total Physical Response (TPR) is an approach of language learning which mainly utilizes students’ activity in order to learn language more effectively. TPR has several principles, they are:
- Meaning in the target language can often be conveyed through actions. Memory is activated through learner response. Beginning foreign language instruction should address the right hemisphere of the brain, the part which controls nonverbal behavior. The target language should be presented in chunks, not just by word by word.
- The students’ understanding of the target language should be developed before speaking.
- Students can initially learn one part of the language rapidly by moving their bodies.
- The imperative is a powerful linguistic device through which the teacher can direct student behavior.
- Students can learn through observing actions as well as by performing the actions themselves.
- It is very important that students feel successful. Feelings of success and low anxiety facilitate learning.
- Students should not be made to memorize fixed routines.
- Correction should be carried out in an unobtrusive manner.
- Students must develop flexibility in understanding novel combinations of target language chunks. They need to understand more than the exact sentences used in training. Novelty is also motivating.
- Language learning is more effective when it is fun.
- Spoken language should be emphasized over written language.
- Students will begin to speak when they are ready.
- Students are expected to make errors when they first begin speaking. Teachers should be tolerant of them. Work on the fine details of the language should be postponed until students have become somewhat proficient.